Epigraphic Conventions

The Ancient Graffiti Project uses the epigraphic conventions established by the Epigraphic Database Roma (EDR).

Symbol Meaning
[abc] Letters once present, now missing due to damage to the surface or support
[—] Damage to the surface or support; letters cannot be restored with certainty
a(bc) Abbreviation; text was never written out; expanded by editor
[[abc]] Letters intentionally erased in antiquity
ABC Letters whose reading is clear but meaning is incomprehensible
ạḅ Characters damaged or unclear that would be unintelligible without context
abc Characters formerly visible, now missing
((:abc)) Description of a figural graffito (used by EDR and AGP)
(:abc) Gives standard spelling to explain non-standard text in an inscription (used by EDR and AGP)