Epigraphic Conventions

The Ancient Graffiti Project uses the epigraphic conventions established by the Epigraphic Database Roma (EDR), which are based on the Krummrey Panciera 1980 system.

Symbol Meaning
[abc] Letters once present, now missing due to damage to the surface or support
[ – – – ] Damage to the surface or support; letters cannot be restored with certainty
a(bc) Abbreviation; text was never written out; expanded by editor
âbc Letters joined in ligature, each letter that is joined to the next letter is indicated by a caret
[[abc]] Letters intentionally erased in antiquity
ABC Letters whose reading is clear but meaning is incomprehensible
ạḅ Characters damaged or unclear that would be unintelligible without context
+ Illegible/unclear character
abc Characters formerly visible, now missing
((:abc)) Description of a figural graffito (used by EDR and AGP)
(:abc) Gives standard spelling to explain non-standard text in an inscription (used by EDR and AGP)
– – – – – – Lost lines, quantity unknown
? Represents Uncertainty